Heart Failure

Heart failure is a chronic condition that occurs when the heart is unable to pump blood efficiently to meet the body’s needs. It is usually characterised by dysfunction of the left ventricle (main pumping chamber of the heart).

Here Are Some Key Points About Heart Failure


Heart failure is a prevalent condition, affecting millions of people worldwide. Its prevalence increases with age, and certain factors such as underlying heart disease, high blood pressure, diabetes, obesity, and a history of heart attacks can contribute to its development.


Symptoms of heart failure can vary, but commonly include fatigue, shortness of breath (especially during physical activity or lying flat), swelling in the ankles, legs, or abdomen (oedema), persistent cough or wheezing, reduced ability to exercise, rapid or irregular heartbeat, and fluid retention. These symptoms may be mild initially but can progress over time.


The treatment of heart failure aims to alleviate symptoms, slow disease progression, improve quality of life, and reduce hospitalisations. The treatment approach depends on the underlying cause, severity of symptoms, and individual patient factors.

Treatment Options Include:

Lifestyle Modifications

Patients are often advised to make lifestyle changes such as maintaining a healthy weight, following a low-sodium diet, limiting fluid intake, quitting smoking, and engaging in regular exercise within the limits advised by their healthcare provider.



Various medications may be prescribed to manage heart failure. These include diuretics (to reduce fluid retention), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) or sacubitril, beta-blockers, aldosterone antagonists, and Epagliflozin or dapagliflozin. These medications help improve heart function, reduce symptoms, and prevent disease progression.

Device Therapy

In certain cases, device therapy may be recommended. This includes implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) to detect and treat life-threatening arrhythmias, and cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), which are specialised pacemaker devices to improve heart function and synchronize heart contractions.

Cardiac Rehabilitation

Cardiac rehabilitation programs, which include supervised exercise, education, and counseling, may be recommended to improve exercise capacity.

Surgical Interventions

In some cases, surgical interventions such as coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), valve repair or replacement

It is important to note that the treatment approach for heart failure is individualized based on the patient's condition and should be discussed with a healthcare professional.

Please remember to consult with your cardiologist at peninsula for specific information and advice related to your condition.

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